Physical Fitness.

Components of Physical Fitness.

Physical fitness is the ability to do a daily physical workout without feeling too tired. We can find 4 components of physical fitness:

Endurance – Stamina:

The ability of the heart and lungs, to work for a long period of time without tiring.

Flexibility- Suppleness:

The range of movement at/across/around a joint.

Speed

Moving the whole body part of the body very quickly/in a short time.

Strength

The maximum force a muscle/group of muscles can apply against a resistance.

Fuerza

Fuerza

 

    These are the components of physical fitness.

1. Endurance – Stamina:

Stamina helps your muscles to work for a long period of time.


With it, you can do exercices for a long period of time, no matter the intensity.

For example:

Cycling: In the Tour of France they ride more than 200km over a lot of days, but they also sprint!
Marathon runnners: they run for more than 2 hours at a very fast pace.
Swimmers: in the 1500m race

 

There are two types of Stamina or Endurance: Aerobic and Anaerobic.

Aerobic Stamina: You can do exercise for long periods of time at a medium intensity. (marathon, cycling..)


Anaerobic Stamina: These exercises are shorter but have a very high intensity (100m sprint, a basketball attack).

Aerobic Exercise is very good for your health. It develops your heart, your lungs and your circulatory system.

Benefits of regular stamina training:

-Your heart grows larger and thicker-You have more capillary.
-Your breathing capacity increases. -It´s easier to maintain your ideal weight

3. Speed:

Speed is the ability to one or more movements in a short period of time.

Some examples of sports where speed is important:

Fifty meters swimmers, react quickly to the horn and swim very fast.
Handball goalkeepers react very fast to stop balls.
Fencers must move fast to touch the opponent with their sword.


When we talk about the speed to move from one place to another (running, biking or swimming), we call it a sprint.

Speed means reacting quickly and moving fast.

Benefits of speed training:
-Speed is basic in all sports. Even in a marathon, the winner is the fastest!
-It is related with coordination and agility. If you react and move fast, you have an advantage in all sports.
-Speed training develops and makes your muscles grow.

2. Strength:

Strength is the ability to use muscles against a resistance (a force or a weight). 

With it, you can move or lift weights, and you can move your body weight easier.

Some sports in wich strength is important:

Weightlifting: to lift as much weight as you can.
Judo: to throw your opponent.
Climbing: you need to move your body weight up the mountain.
Athletics: to jump higher or longer and to throw the javelin or hammer.


There are
three types of strength:


a) Maximum strength: to lift very high weights (aizkolaris lift very heavy stones)


b) Explosive strength: to do a movement as fast as we can, moving a small weight (javelin throwers, for example)


c) Resistance-Strength: to do exercises with medium weights for a long time (in judo, combats last 4 minutes; rowers must move the boat for a long time also)


Benefits of developing your strength:

-You have more muscular power -Your muscles and tendons grow in size.
-You can move weights easier (including your own body). -It helps you keeping a good posture in daily life and sports

4. Flexibility- Suppleness:

Suppleness is the ability to have a wide range of movement with any part of your body. It is also called Flexibility.


Flexibility is very important in all sports, because with it, you have better performance and less injuries.


It is important for gymnasts, for hurdle runners or tae-kwondo fighters to do kicks. 

There are two types of flexibility:

Dinamic Flexibility:you use it when you do wide and relaxed movements.
Static Flexibility:you use it when you hold one position for some seconds. There is no movement.


Flexibility is the only physical ability that decreases as you grow older.

You need to spend a little time everyday to maintain and enhance it.

Benefits of supleness training:

-You have less injuries.

-Your muscles are more elastic and more powerful.

-Your movements are not limited.