Physical Fitness

Components of Physical Fitness

Physical fitness is the ability to do a daily physical workout without feeling too tired. We can find 4 components of physical fitness:

Endurance – Stamina:

The ability of the heart and lungs, to work for a long period of time without tiring.

Flexibility- Suppleness:

The range of movement at/across/around a joint.


Moving the whole body part of the body very quickly/in a short time.


The maximum force a muscle/group of muscles can apply against a resistance.




    These are the components of physical fitness.

1. Endurance – Stamina:

Stamina helps your muscles to work for a long period of time.

With it, you can do exercices for a long period of time, no matter the intensity.

For example:

Cycling: In the Tour of France they ride more than 200km over a lot of days, but they also sprint!
Marathon runnners: they run for more than 2 hours at a very fast pace.
Swimmers: in the 1500m race


There are two types of Stamina or Endurance: Aerobic and Anaerobic.

Aerobic Stamina: You can do exercise for long periods of time at a medium intensity. (marathon, cycling..)

Anaerobic Stamina: These exercises are shorter but have a very high intensity (100m sprint, a basketball attack).

Aerobic Exercise is very good for your health. It develops your heart, your lungs and your circulatory system.

3. Speed:

Speed is the ability to one or more movements in a short period of time.

Some examples of sports where speed is important:

Fifty meters swimmers, react quickly to the horn and swim very fast.
Handball goalkeepers react very fast to stop balls.
Fencers must move fast to touch the opponent with their sword.

When we talk about the speed to move from one place to another (running, biking or swimming), we call it a sprint.

Speed means reacting quickly and moving fast.

2. Strength:

Strength is the ability to use muscles against a resistance (a force or a weight). 

With it, you can move or lift weights, and you can move your body weight easier.

Some sports in wich strength is important:

Weightlifting: to lift as much weight as you can.
Judo: to throw your opponent.
Climbing: you need to move your body weight up the mountain.
Athletics: to jump higher or longer and to throw the javelin or hammer.

There are
three types of strength:

a) Maximum strength: to lift very high weights (aizkolaris lift very heavy stones)

b) Explosive strength: to do a movement as fast as we can, moving a small weight (javelin throwers, for example)

c) Resistance-Strength: to do exercises with medium weights for a long time (in judo, combats last 4 minutes; rowers must move the boat for a long time also)

4. Flexibility- Suppleness:

Suppleness is the ability to have a wide range of movement with any part of your body. It is also called Flexibility.

Flexibility is very important in all sports, because with it, you have better performance and less injuries.

It is important for gymnasts, for hurdle runners or tae-kwondo fighters to do kicks. 

There are two types of flexibility:

Dinamic Flexibility:you use it when you do wide and relaxed movements.
Static Flexibility:you use it when you hold one position for some seconds. There is no movement.

Flexibility is the only physical ability that decreases as you grow older.

You need to spend a little time everyday to maintain and enhance it.